||History of Peru
The population of Peru probably dates back to about 20,000 years. It was the cradle of the first civilizations of the American continent. Among the first hunters and gatherers (6000 or 5000 BC) we have the men of gamblers, paijan and toquepala. First farmers, chilca and paracas the first sedentary (5000 or 2500 ac).
In century XIII a.C. When the first pre-Inca civilizations began to develop, which would have in Chavin its first great culmination.
Other different regional civilizations developed like Chavin, Paracas, Mochica, Nazca Tiahuanaco, Wari and Chimu left to the Incas a lot of knowledge.
Between centuries XII and XVII was established the Inca Empire whose capital was located in the city of cuzco.El Inca Empire had a theocratic monarchy with a stratified society and a productive system oriented to the needs of the communities.
In the year of 1532 a small group of Spaniards commanded by Francisco Pizarro arrived at Peru and in Cajamarca they captured the Inca Atahualpa to whom after requesting a ransom had executed, from the death of this sovereign a great cataclysm in the structures of the empire began , Also to see so many abuses on the part of the Spaniards the Indians revolted infinity of times but they were defeated. In 1935 was founded the city of kings, later called Lima, the foundation of this city symbolized for the Spaniards the end of the conquest and the beginning of the colonization, great architectures were developed in Renaissance styles, with gothic evocations, baroque style especially in Lima Cuzco and Arequipa.
In 1820 disembarked in Paracas General Jose De San Martin, who on 28 July 1821 proclaimed independence which of course did not mean the end of the war of emancipation, which was later joined by Simon Bolivar who triumphed in 1824 with battles Of Junín and Ayacucho, when sucre defeat to the virrey Jose De La Serna ended the Spanish dominion.
Peruvian independence gave way to the process of national organization. Peru is today a modern and traditional country proud of its rich past.
Location and Climate of Peru
SE UBICA, on the central western coast of South America, where it is possible to find all the climates of the world. Heir to ancient cultures, with thousands of archaeological remains and a rich colonial tradition.
With an area of 1,285,216 km2 that places it among the 20 most extensive countries of the planet. Due to its location, it is the third largest country in South America, after Brazil and Argentina. Boundaries: to the North, with Ecuador and Colombia; To the East with Brazil and Bolivia; To the west with the Pacific Ocean and to the South with Chile. The Peruvian territorial sea comprises a wide strip of the Pacific Ocean that reaches up to 200 miles (371 km), counted from the coastline. And it has territorial rights over an area of 60 million hectares in Antarctica.
Peru, has a very varied climate, summers and winters occur in different ways according to the regions.
Due to the effect of the Humboldt cold current and the presence of the Andes to the east, the coast is in the shape of a vast, arid desert. The central and southern region of the Peruvian coast has two well-marked seasons: one winter, between April and October; And a summer, between November and March. During the winter a dense layer of clouds covers the skies and the light drizzles or "garúas" are frequent. The temperature rarely drops below 12 ° C. During the summer, the temperature frequently reaches 30 ° C. The northern coastal region, on the other hand, does not suffer from the effect of cold water, which translates into Almost 300 days of sunshine and warm temperatures throughout the year (up to 35 ° C in the summer). Which increase markedly with the presence of the El Niño weather phenomenon every 4 or 5 years.
The mountain range presents two well differentiated climatic seasons: one of summer, between April and October, characterized by sunny days very cold nights (here are frequent frosts) and rainfall (the ideal time to go there); And a rainy (badly called winter), between November and March, in which rainfall is abundant (usually over 1,000 mm). The Sierra also has a dry and pleasant climate, ideal for the growth of a huge variety of crops.
The jungle can be divided into high jungle or mountain brow (about 700 m.s.n.m) and low jungle (below 700 m.s.n.m). The former has a subtropical and temperate climate, with abundant rainfall (about 3,000 mm a year) between November and March and sunny days between April and October. The nights are always cool. On the other hand, the low forest offers two well-marked climatic seasons, which are accentuated in direct relation with the distance of the equatorial line. The summer or summer season, between April and October (ideal season for tourism), is dominated by sunny days and high temperatures, often exceeding 35 ° C and deteriorating terrestrial transit. The humidity in the jungle is very high throughout the year. In the southern region there are occasional "friajes" or "surazos", cold fronts coming from the southern end of the continent that occur between May and August and in which the temperature usually drops to 8-12 ° C
Lima, founded on January 18, 1535
Callao, Trujillo, Cuzco, Iquitos, Chiclayo, Piura
27,947,000 inhabitants, mestizos (45%); Mulattoes Indigenous people (49%); Black and Asian (6%)
Spanish, Quechua, Aymara and other native languages.
The monetary unit is the Nuevo Sol (S /.), With coins of 10, 20, and 50 cents and of 1, 2 and 5 Nuevos Soles and 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 Nuevos Soles. Major credit cards are accepted in hotels, restaurants, shops, etc. ATMs in the main cities. Use of credit card or ATM provides a better exchange rate.
Presidential Republic, with three public powers: Legislative (House of 120 representatives), Executive (President and Council of Ministers) and Judicial (Supreme Court and Superior Courts of Justice)
Via Aerea: Peru has as main point of arrival the International Airport "Jorge Chavez" about 30 minutes from the most important residential and commercial area of the city of Lima which is the district of Miraflores. From Lima it is possible to connect flights to almost all the main cities of Peru.
Taxis: you should be careful to take them from an authorized company. Avoid informal taxis that offer lower prices but sometimes cause theft and loss of luggage.
Road: There are buses with all the comforts (air conditioning, food, DVD, earthmoving, bus-bed) that help to connect with the main cities of the country. The roads to the main cities of Peru are paved, except those that connect to the jungle area like Iquitos, Amazonas, San Martin, Madre de Dios, where access is by rough roads and it is preferable to take aerial flights.
It is a varied and exquisite ethnic mix, the variety of ingredients and the native forms of preparation with the mixture of European, Asian, African and other neighboring countries has given rise to the renowned "Creole food". Fish and seafood are part of the typical dishes of our cuisine. It is advisable to drink the water from sealed bottles or put pills to purify the water.
Entertainment and Music
Clubs with Latin or Creole music from the coast are popular in Lima and major coastal cities. Restaurants and hotels in Cuzco and other cities offer music shows and folk dances. Or you can visit a "peña", a very cheerful club with very colorful shows where the public participates.
Business & Shopping
Monday to Friday: Business (9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.). Shops (10:00 - 19:00). Saturday: Shopping (10:00 -19:00)
All major banks are represented in Lima. And in the main cities of Peru. Monday - Friday: 9:45 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. - Saturdays: 9:45 a.m. - 12: 00 p.m.
Huaraz is the capital city of the department of Ancash, located at 3,100 m above sea level in the Santa River valley. Located 400 kilometers north of Lima, at the head of the Callejon de Huaylas - a large valley between the Cordilleras White and Black-
Huaraz is the main center of mountaineering, trekking and hiking in Peru and, probably, all of South America, which has been devastated several times by violent earthquakes. However, its mountain environment is exceptionally beautiful and many travelers travel to Peru with the sole intention of visiting this region.
Two activities are supported economically: tourism and mining.
The mountains offer a wide range of tourist options, although perhaps the most evident are the summits that surpass 6,000 meters of altitude, permanently covered by glaciers. In this region there are lakes of glacial origin and hot springs. Finally, the fauna and flora of this region are extraordinary, as is the case of puya raimondii, the largest bromeliacea in the world (whose inflorescence reaches over 10 meters in height), and the important Andean condor, one of the Biggest birds on the planet
HOW TO GET
Huaraz has a strategic position in the center of the Department of Ancash and is an axis of communication with the remaining provinces of the "Chavín Region" joined by two highways.
To get to Huaraz you can take land and air way
- By paved road from Lima, via Pativilca passing the point of Conococha to 4 000 m.s.n.m., from south to north to 400 km away considered as very good road penetration Peru.
-By road partly paved, from Casma passing the height of Punta Callan to 4 200 m.s.n.m. And 185 Km. Away.
-By road from Chimbote to Caraz and asphalted until Huaraz is located 192 km. From distance, slowly ascending to 3 000 m.s.n.m. On a pleasant trip, without major abrupt changes of climate.
From the Jorge Chavez airport, Lima to the airport of Anta "Germán Arias Graziani" 30 minutes flight from Anta to Huaraz and 20 minutes by car by asphalted road. Currently commercial airways are available.
When to go
The best season for hiking or climbing is the dry season, mainly the months of June, July and August. Also a good time is the period between May and September, of course we must be prearranged for occasional rain.
THE PERUVIAN ANDES
In Peru the Andes form a set of mountain ranges that cross our territory from south to north showing different characteristics of configuration, structure and composition.
All the attention of the mountainous Andes occupies the 32% of the national territory and of the near of 20 existent differentiated mountain ranges that the one that conform, two stand out for their height and rigor of their profiles; The white mountain range and the huayhuash mountain range that shelter the two highest peaks of Peru: the snow covered with 6,768 m and the yerupaja with 6,679 m respectively an enormous amount of water resources descends from the height that reaches more than 5,000 m product of rains And thawing of the snowy mountains that have formed over millions of years valleys and ravines that flow rivers and streams that feed both the desert strip of the coast and the flows of the Amazon region.
Main mountains of Peru
Peru has about 20 mountain ranges and more than a thousand mountains that exceed 5000 meters of altitude. 36 of them exceed 6000 meters above sea level. The following list presents some of the main Peruvian mountains.
CORDILLERA DE HUAYHUASH
The spectacular Huayhuash mountain range, located to the south of the white mountain range, in the central Peruvian Andes, despite being only 30 km long, has become one of the favorite places for trekking and adventure lovers.
The geographic coordinates of this mountain range are 10º16 '01' 'south latitude and 76º54'09' 'west longitude.
This massif contains more than 30 snow-capped mountains, 6 of which exceed 6,000 meters of altitude, one of them is the second highest in Peru: the yerupaja, with its 6634 meters of altitude.
In the opinion of many mountain specialists, the trekking route that runs this mountain range for 180 kilometers, is the longest, longest and most spectacular in the world, surpassing the existing routes in Nepal, Himalayas and Africa.
One of the aspects attributed to these characteristics is that the average height during the tours is approx. 4300m.
The most direct access to this mountain range is by the city of Chiquian (2400m) capital of the province of Bolognesi, which is reached from a detour from the road leading to Huaraz. It is the starting point, and arrival of the main trekking route.
It leaves from the city of chiquian towards llamac and they give all the return to the mountain range.
THE WHITE CORDILLERA
The white mountain range in the alley of huaylas 407 kilometers to the northwest of Lima, is the highest mountain chain of the Peruvian Andes and the tropical zones around the world. The beauty of its snow-capped mountains, lagoons, flora and fauna, the anthropological interest that its towns awaken and the relative accessibility of its mountains represent a set of unique conditions that favor both recreational and adventure tourism.
With more than 180 kilometers in length, this mountain range is the most frequented by Peruvian and foreign mountaineers, with 30 peaks that exceed 6,000 meters above sea level, the highest snowfall in the world with its 6768 masl, also has a variety of snow Of irresistible attraction as the alpamayo THE NEVADO MOST HERMIT OF THE PLANET cataloged thus by a world-wide survey on scenic beauty of Munich Germany in 1966 for who likes to undergo strong clutch of climbs.
The visitor can opt for adventure sports, such as canoeing, hang gliding, mountain biking, skiing on all trekking and the always fascinating mountain climbs.
The holy river on the other hand offers to the fans to the fast and intense and spectacular canoeing and kayak, that run amidst surprising natural formations. The picturesque villages that are situated along the length and breadth of the mountain range will also welcome those who make their journeys by car and walking in these cases the internment to the mountains will be a fabulous experience in which, in any itinerary there will be place for amazing beauty And pacificating the majesty of the place.